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Hand-eye calibration is used to relate what the camera (“eye”) sees to where the robot arm (“hand”) moves.

In a nutshell:

Eye-in-hand calibration is a process for determining the relative position and orientation of a robot-mounted camera with respect to the robot's end-effector. It is usually done by capturing a set of images of a static object of known geometry with the robot arm located in a set of different positions and orientations.

Eye-to-hand calibration is a process for determining the position and orientation of a statically mounted camera with respect to the robot's base frame. It is usually done by placing an object of known geometry in the robot's gripper and taking a series of images of it in a set of different positions and orientations.

For a detailed description of the topic, please read the following pages:

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